Robert Rauschenburg

Robert Rauschenberg paved the way for pop art in the 1960s with Jasper John by using non traditional materials. He used a mixture of sculpture and paint in work he called combines, as seen in The Bed (1955). From the late 1950s, he started incorporating sound and movement in his works and also silk screen transfers. Examples of this are his works Broadcast (1959) and Flush (1964). In the 1980s and 90s, he started experimenting with collage and different ways to transfer photos. In 1997, the Solomon R Guggenheim museum, New York City, staged an exhibition of his work.

Flowers

Lignum Vitae is Latin for wood of life. This has probably come from its medicinal qualities. This flower is native to America and the West Indies. In Jamaica, it grows best in the dry woodlands along the north and south coasts of the island. This plant is a blue flower and an orange/yellow fruit. It’s crown has a round shape.

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Hibiscus is the representation of tropical flowers. Hibiscus flowers are big and bright and can come in a few different colours. These colours include red, white, pink and yellow. It can be grown inside but is wild in Jamaica. Jamaican sorrel or roselle (hibiscus sabdariffa) is the common name for a type of tropical hibiscus whose calyces are used to make a red drink. They give off a cranberry like flavour. The calyces are boiled and strained and the juice is mixed with sugar for a cold drink. The flowers of Jamaica are white, pale yellow or pale pink with a red centre.

Jamaican orchids, also known as briughtonia sanguinea, bloom in spring/summer with 4-12 4cm wide flowers. These flowers grow in warm to hot conditions with bright lighting. There are 4 different varieties of this flower. These are broughtonia sanguinea var alba. The sepals and petals are white and the lip is white on this flower. Broughtonia sanguinea var aurea sepals  and petals are yellow and the lip is yellow. Broughtonia sanguinea var Aquinii and Broughtonia sanguinea variant sepals are white. The petals are white with a pink stripe and the lip is white with a pink stripe.

 

Exhibition

We started to put the exhibition up by clearing out the room. We started to pile up the tables and chairs and throw out things that weren’t needed anymore. We then started to put up white boards around the room. Whilst this was being done, we started to take out staples and sand them so that they were smooth. We started gum stripping the boards so that we could start painting them. By the end of the week, we were painting the room. The second week, we started to put up work.

I looked on Pinterest for different ideas on how to present my work in the exhibition. I looked at degree shows from other places to get some inspiration for my work. I found a few ideas that I liked.

After looking at a few things on Pinterest, I have decided to hang my work in a space in the middle of the room. I will also have 2 photos of my garments hanging with them, similar to picture 4.

Exhibition

I looked on Pinterest for different ideas on how to present my work at the exhibition. I found a few things that I liked the look of. They are garments hanging in 2 different ways. 


I spoke to Jo about my idea and she suggested doing a photoshoot that I could get printed and put up with my garments on a mannequin. I like the idea of having photos up but I’m not sure how well it would go with my garments hanging. I think I will go with Jo’s idea as I think this would look good in an exhibition. 

I found another way to present my work that involves my idea and jo’s idea. I like how this looked as it is an interesting way to present my work. Even though I liked this way of presenting, I still think it would look better on a mannequin if I have photos put with it. 

Prajje Jr. Jean Baptiste

Prajje Jr. Jean Baptiste was born in Haiti. He is now New York based. He opened his own fashion company, Prajje 1983, in 2003. He designs vibrant evening dresses that are flattering to the female silhouette. On May 29 2014 he was invited to headline at colour revolution in Saint Maarten. He decided to use the landscape as a background for a photo shoot of his gowns. He was asked about doing fashion week and he decided against it. He believes that they are just a ‘distraction ‘ and  a ‘financial strain’. He said he ‘prefers to concentrate in my work and create unique and affordable clothes’. In 2014, prajje returned to Haiti to present his work at the prestigious gallery Nader in Petionville. While he was in Haiti, he rediscovered his roots, Haiti’s beauty and dynamic spirit. He started to create a new collection about Haiti and its culture/traditions. He was particularly inspired by three of Haiti’s mystical goddesses, Erzulie, Freda and Dantor. In 2015, he went back to Haiti and spent over a month there working on this collection. He explored different techniques such as embroidery and beading. He did this with Haitian artisans. He then started to make plans to for manufacturing the collection in Haiti. The collection caught the attention of the fashion press and was featured in the January 2016 issue of Rebelle and Magic Haiti magazines among others. 

Patterns

I looked at a book on patterns. I found a few patterns that were similar to the ones that I made and got digitally printed. 

  

This design was hand block printed in brown on undyed, hand woven, Indian cotton. It was made between the 1920s and 30s by Phyllis Barron and Dorothy Larcher. I chose this design as I have made similar designs by using triangles. This design looks like triangles put together with straight lines in between to break it up. This reminded me of the design that I did where I placed the triangles together and it formed a straight line. 

 
This design was produced as a sample for French couturier houses. This pattern is described as tumbling box. It has been screenprinted onto cotton. It was made anonymously for Bilbille & Co in 1959-1960. This design is like my designs where I’ve put diamonds next to each other and squares on a slant overlapping each other. I like the original design as it looks quite 3D whereas mine are more 2D. 


This is another design by Phyllis Barron and Dorothy Larcher made in 1920-30. It was hand block printed onto undyed organdie cotton. At the time designs similar to this would have been used for cushions and tablecloths. This is similar to my design with the lines in between the pattern to break it up. 


This design is a geometric pattern of intersecting lines makes a design for wallpapers and fabrics. The pattern also appears on a range of melamine coated kitchem accessories. It was made in 2008. This design is like my idea were I placed triangles together to create a straight line. 


This design is a working drawing by Reiko Sudo. Her combination of complex technologies, traditional techniques and new finishing processes has created extraordinary visual effects for textiles within interiors, fashion and art. This design is similar to the design I made on illustrator with stripes. My design is different because it is diagonal lines and in bright colours whereas this is vertical lines in black and white. 

From looking in this book, I have noticed that a lot of patterns that I have got inspiration from all have straight lines in. I have also noticed that the lines in the patterns have influenced my work to the point where I have included these lines in each of my designs. 

African Fabrics, Patterns and Designs

I have looked into african patterns and designs as the Jamaican style is inspired by this.

Woven cloth is the oldest and most valuable type of fabric in Africa. weaving represents a tradition that is passed down from father to son and from mother to daughter. There are a few things that determines the value of the fabric. These things are the complexity of the weave, the thread used and the colour. Mudcloth, Kuba cloth and Kente cloth are examples of woven cloth.

Mudcloth is the traditional cloth from Mali. Sections of this cloth are made up of different motifs such as fish bones, little stars or hunters. These are usually in blacks browns and whites. Each mudcloth is unique. Traditionally, men were responsible for having the strips of plain fabric that were then put together to create a rectangular fabric. Mud cloth is made by dying it in bath of leaves and tree branches. This dye acts as a fixer. It will also make the cloth yellow. The cloth will then be sun dried and painted with mud that was collected from ponds. The mud was left to ferment. As the cloth dries, the mud turns grey and the cloth is washed to remove excess mud. This process is repeated multiple times. Each time the painted area gets darker. The yellow areas are then painted with bleach which turns them brown. The cloth is left to sun dry for a week. The cloth is washed and the bleached areas are now white. Mud cloth is also called Bogolanfini. In Bambara, the language spoken in Mali, Bogolanfini is made up of three words. Bogo means earth or mud, lan means means with and fini means cloth. The word literally translates to mud cloth. Fashion designer Chris Seydou bought mud cloth international. His mother was an embroiderer so from a young age he was surrounded by fabrics, the clothing trade and fashion magazines. He started in fashion by apprenticing in tailor hops in Mali at 16. By the age of 26, he was designing his own collection using mud cloth. He simplified the older patterns as he believed the traditional patterns were too complex for western clothing. He used the cloth on his haute couture mini skirts, biker jackets and bell bottom pants.

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Mud cloth patterns
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This pattern represents bamboo and millet leaves. The pattern is usually worn by a woman who wants to show her superiority to a co wife. However this pattern is popular and does not always mean this.

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This pattern is very old and represents the spindle.

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This pattern represents the belt that warriors used to wear before going out to battle. It is worn by someone brave and fearless.

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A farmer had a sickle that he particularly liked and he thought it deserved its own pattern. This pattern is named the back of the sickles blade.

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This pattern is very common. It may represents good fortune as an iguana can lead a hunter to water. The iguana is also symbolic for african born people in warfare with foreign powers.

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This pattern is also very popular and represents the flower of the calabash.

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This pattern means wealth and luxury. It represents the cushions of the rich women from the Mauritania area. These women are considered to be very wealthy and they don’t have to work just put their heads on cushions.

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This design represents crocodile fingers. It is a very popular design.

There are so many different designs that have different meanings. It is difficult to find specific meanings as everybody has different meanings for each pattern.

Kuba cloth

The process of making Kuba cloth is time consuming and takes several days to form a simple placemat size piece. The men gather leaves from the raffia tree and then dye it using mud, indigo or a substance from the camwood tree. They rub the raffia fibers in there hands to soften it and make it easier to weave. After they have completed the weave, the women embroider it. They do this by pulling a few threads of the raffia fibers, inserting them into a needle and running the needle through the cloth until the fibers show on the opposite end. They then cut the top of the fibers so that only a bit is showing. Doing this hundreds of times makes a design. The designs are planned out ahead and the embroidery is usually done from memory. You can learn a lot about the person wearing the designs just by looking at what they have on.


Kente cloth

Kente cloth is made by asante and ewe weavers using specially designed looms. It is woven in four inch narrow strips that are sewn together. A characteristic asante kente have geometric shapes woven in bright colours that go along the whole strip. Ewe kente has a tweed effect by plying together different colored threads in many of the warps. Original Kente cloth was black and white but dyes were developed from different plants and a range of colours evolved. Blue comes from the indigo plant, red comes from dried cam wood , brown comes from indian tamarind and green comes from boiled spinach leaves. The colours show mood. Dark colours are used to show grief and are used for mourning ceremonies and lighter shades show happiness. The colours of the ghanian flag, red, yellow, green and black, are the most popular in modern cloths. Kente cloth consists of sharp defined shapes created by the technique of loom weaving. Its easier to weave geometric shapes than natural shapes so rectangles, zig zags, diamonds and squares are mainly used.